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Volume 10 FALL/WINTER 2003 Numbers 3/4


CONTENTS

THIRD WORLD VIEWS OF THE HOLOCAUST

About the Contributors

Tenth Anniversary Issue of BRIDGES

Preface: Third World Views of the Holocaust
William F.S. Miles, Guest Editor
Northeastern University
Boston, Massachusetts (USA)

ARTICLES

Holocaust Studies in China
Xu Xin
Professor and Director of the Center for Jewish Studies Nanjing University (People’s Republic of China)

Nazi Hunting and the Prosecution of Genocide in Africa
Gerald Gahima
Prosecutor General of the Republic of Rwanda
Rwanda (Africa)

The Uses and Abuses of the Holocaust Paradigm in Ethiopia: 1980-1991
Edward Kissi
Department of Africana Studies
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida (USA)

Japanization of the Holocaust
Kinue Tokudome

Reflections on the Shoah by an Itinerant Muslim
Shawkat M. Toorawa
Department of Near Eastern Studies
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York (USA)

Versions and Perversions of the Holocaust in Latin America
Ilán Stavans
Amherst College
Amherst, Massachusetts (USA)

SELECTED BOOK REVIEWS

Anthony J. Blasi, Jean Duhaime, and Paul André Turcotte, eds. Handbook of Early Christianity: Social Science Approaches
Michael J. Gorman

Marilyn E. Coors, The Matrix: Charting an Ethics of Inheritable Genetic Modification
Ingrid H. Shafer

Mordechai Feingold, ed. Jesuit Science and the Republic of Letters
Arthur J. Spring

Abdul Ali Hamid, ed., Moral Teachings of Islam: Prophetic Traditions from al-Adab al-mufrad
Arthur J. Spring

Noreen L. Herzfeld, In Our Image: Artificial Intelligence and the Human Spirit
Daniel G. Deffenbaugh

Ernest B. Hook, ed., Prematurity in Scientific Discovery: On Resistance and Neglect
Richard Isaacman

Richard A. Horsley, Jesus and Empire: The Kingdom of God and the New World Disorder
Michael J. Gorman

Tarif Khalidi, The Muslim Jesus: Saying and Stories in Islamic Literature
Arthur J. Spring

Karen L. King, What is Gnosticism?
Justin S. Holcomb

Daniel E. Lee, Navigating Right and Wrong
Kenneth K. Frank

Jonathan D. Moreno, ed. In the Wake of Terror: Medicine and Morality in a Time of Crisis
Ingrid H. Shafer

Gregory R. Peterson, Minding God: Theology and the Cognitive Sciences
Justin S. Holcomb

Clifford Putney, Muscular Christianity: Manhood and Sports in Protestant America, 1880-1920
Angus E. Crane

Thomas M. Robinson and Laura Westra, eds., Thinking about the Environment: Our Debt to the Classical and Medieval Past
Rosamond Spring

Nathan W. Schlueter, One Dream or Two? Justice in America and in the Thought of Martin Luther King, Jr.
James E. Southerland

Cheryl Brown Travis, ed. Evolution, Gender, and Rape
Therese A. Paetschow

Jean Vanier, Finding Peace
Arthur J. Spring

Grant Wacker, Heaven Below: Early Pentecostals and American Culture
Glenn Lucke

Alison Wylie, Thinking from Things: Essays in the Philosophy of Archaeology
Peter Amato

BOOKS OF NOTE

CUMULATIVE INDEX

The overall cover design for the FALL/WINTER 2003 issue of BRIDGES was created by Mr. Ty Bachus. The logo at the bottom center was developed by Mr. Terry Beadle and Professor William Miles.



Holocaust Studies in China
________

Xu Xin

Holocaust Studies is a unique program in China. Its development is linked closely to Judaic Studies in China. The tendency is for Judaic Studies to lead towards the study of anti-Semitism, and the study of anti-Semitism to lead to Holocaust Studies. As Judaic Studies have deepened in China, so have Holocaust Studies. The history and development of Holocaust Studies in the academy in China since the 1980s is surveyed. Research into a broad plan for Jewish refugee resettlement in Southwest China; Communist attitudes towards Judaica prior to the 1970s; the subsequent impact of Jewish literature in translation; public awareness and Holocaust education; and the uniqueness and meanings of Holocaust Studies to the Chinese people are discussed. One unspoken purpose of Holocaust Studies in China is to establish a reference between the Shoah and the Nanjing Massacre.

Nazi Hunting and the Prosecution of Genocide in Africa
________

Gerald Gahima

The pursuit of post-genocidal justice binds the (principally Tutsi) survivors of the genocide in Rwanda with those of the Shoah. Rwandans understand well the disappointment that a people feels when the entire world abandons them to destruction, standing by and not intervening. Those targeted by genocide owe themselves the duty to ensure their people’s future survival. Four reasons argue for law-based prosecutions as responses to genocide: (1) legal justice not only punishes crime, but commemorates the victims; (2) there is an ongoing duty to surviving remnants to eradicate impunity; (3) rebuilding of post-genocidal society requires the restoration of rule of law, for which punishing mass murder is a fundamental step; and (4) pursuing justice is critical for achieving reconciliation. Deciding on the most appropriate kind of legal prosecution, however, is not a simple matter.

The Uses and Abuses of the Holocaust Paradigm in Ethiopia: 1980-1991
________

Edward Kissi

The global spread of knowledge of the Holocaust has resulted in its politicization. One example occurred in Ethiopia in the 1970s and 1980s, where war and famine heightened the need for food, arms, and international sympathy. To internationalize their causes, anti-state groups appropriated the historical experience of Jews as a framework for drawing American attention to their plight under an African totalitarian regime. While the politicization of Holocaust memory and imagery in Ethiopia bordered on debasement of the experiences of Shoah survivors, it highlighted two important outcomes of Holocaust scholarship. First, knowledge of the Holocaust has now spread beyond its traditional European and North American frontiers. Second, vulnerable groups worldwide are not only drawing lessons from the Holocaust, but also redefining “Jewishness” broadly and beyond ethnicity.

Japanization of the Holocaust
_______

Kinue Tokudome

In Japan, the history of the Holocaust is perceived and sometimes even exploited by two very different groups. One group argues that Japan should emulate the way Germany reflects on the history of the Holocaust, while the other one tries to distinguish Japan’s wartime history from that of the Holocaust. Recently, former American POWs who were enslaved by Japanese companies during WWII have been seeking justice in court. These lawsuits have been treated by Japan and the U.S. in very different ways from Holocaust survivor litigation. Although discouraged by this disparity, the author believes that Japanization of the Holocaust will eventually take place, and views the establishment of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum as a relevant model.

Reflections on the Shoah by an Itinerant Muslim
________

Shawkat M. Toorawa

The subject of Muslim response to the Shoah remains woefully understudied and is one about which one can find very little in print that is not polemical. In this essay I use the biography of my own engagement with Jews, Judaism, and the Shoah as a way of broaching this topic. I describe my early education and upbringing and my first contact with the concepts “Jew/ish,” “Nazi,” and “Holocaust.” I go on to describe my subsequent contact with Muslims who demonize Jews, remain silent about Nazi horrors, and deny the Holocaust—all of whom I take to task. I call on Muslims to dissociate themselves from Holocaust revisionists and deniers and to denounce them in the strongest possible terms; and to remember that no person has the right to limit another person’s humanity.

Versions and Perversions of the Holocaust in Latin America
________

Ilán Stavans

What is the impact of the Holocaust in Latin America? Between 1939 and 1945, the region remained, for the large part, distant from the military campaigns that unfolded in Europe, North Africa, and the Far East. But as soon World War II was over, it became a safe haven for Nazi refugees and concentration camp survivors. In nations such as Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, these two groups often live tête-à-tête in the same neighborhoods. The way the decimation of European Jewry has been digested in the Spanish and Portuguese Americas in pop culture and by the intelligentsia is explored. It reflects on ingrained ignorance and anti-Semitism and establishes a bridge between the tragedy and local catastrophes such as the so-called Dirty War in the seventies.

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